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Hill and marginal grazings
Clearance for livestock
Sheep, shelters etc
main image Salt marsh, Caerlaverock, Dumfries-shire
As estuaries and mud flats silted up they were colonised by vegetation. These areas were useful as supplementary grazings, especially in winter.

Besides grazings, other types of coastal vegetation grew on sand dunes. Other drought-resistant grasses were used as materials for making everyday objects.

Today such areas are valued for their ecological value, notably as the wintering grounds for geese. Many have protected status.

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