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Planned villages and towns
New settlement
main image Kirktoun, St Vigeans, Angus
Before the 18th century, villages were almost unknown in Scotland, apart from in the south east. The typical rural settlement was a hamlet, known generally as a 'fermtoun'. This typically consisted of the houses and farm buildings of four to eight households.

Where these fermtouns were associated with a church or a mill, they were given the name 'kirktoun' and 'milltoun' respectively.

Surviving 'toun' names are especially common in east-central and north-east Scotland, though no longer as multiple tenancy farms. The kirktoun of St Vigeans has now been all but swallowed up by its neighbour, the burgh of Arbroath.

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