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main image Lead smelter, Pate's Knowe, Wanlockhead, Dumfries-shire
Lead, silver and, to a lesser extent copper were extracted and processed at a number of sites in Scotland. Principal amongst these were the adjacent villages of Leadhills, Lanarkshire and Wanlockhead, Dumfries-shire.

Lead and other minerals were worked here from the 13th until the mid 20th century. The remains in today's landscape include mines, spoil heaps, roads and railways, water-courses, two workers' villages and facilities for preparing and smelting ores.

Pate's Knowe was the main smelting site for Wanlockhead during the late 18th and early 19th centuries. It was excavated in the 1970s to reveal two smelting hearths.

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