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main image Tank traps, Shell Bay, Fife
During the early years of World War II, there was a real fear of invasion by Nazi forces. In an attempt to counter this, and perhaps to ease public anxiety, coastal defences were rapidly put in place.

Tank traps, as shown here in the 1960s, were placed in vulnerable coastal locations – especially beaches – where invading forces might land. Their effectiveness was never put to the test, but most remain in situ.

These truncated concrete pyramids (known as 'pimples' or 'dragon's teeth') are less common than the rectangular blocks seen in many other localities. Concrete 'pill boxes' (roofed gun emplacements) were also built as a further means of defence.

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