Formerly in Hamilton Palace, South Lanarkshire, now
in The National Gallery of Art, Washington, USA
Rubens was a highly educated artist, with a good
knowledge of Latin, Italian, French, German and Spanish. He studied
Roman antiquities and works by Renaissance and contemporary painters,
engravers and sculptors, and constantly referred to the past for
subjects, compositions and ideas.
Daniel in the Lions' Den
is a good example of how Rubens created a painting. Daniel's pose
seems to be based on an engraving of the Penitent
St Jerome by Cornelis Cort of 1573, after Girolamo Muziano,
while the lions appear to be a combination of Rubens' studies of
real animals and Italian bronzes of lions.